The Exchange Intelligencer: 28 May-4 June 1645. No. 3.

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Imparting briefly such Domestique and Forrein Newes, as have not been mentioned at all, or which are not fully related by others. From Severall parts of England, France, Germany, Holland, Scotland, Ireland, Denmarke, Italie, &c.

The Cruelty of the Kings souldiers exercised upon our men in Leicester. Eight ladies coming out of Oxford in their Coaches, was forced backe againe into the Towne. The Parliaments Letters to the States of Holland. Prince Ruperts going into Darbishire. The state of our affaires in the North, and in the West. Sir Thomas Fairfax likely to advance to pursue the King; As also, many exact, and remarkable Passages from beyond Seas, &c.

Wednesday the 28 of June
We heare that the King being advertised that the Parliaments forces were to receive him in Lancashire; and understanding that he could not passe those wayes without endangering his Army very much, hath wheeled about towards Leicester, where he was thought and reported to be on Munday last. The same speaketh him 11000 strong, he hath mounted all his Foot.

The Extraordinary Ambassadours from the States Generall of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, having made and extraordinary Speech indeed to both the Hon: Houses of Parliament (as you have heard it heretofore) did afterwards in an insulting manner Licence and cause their said Speech to come to the publique view in Print, that it might be knowne to all men that they were well affected to the King to the prejudice of the Parliament. His Majesty had wonne their hearts with the honours of Knights and afterwards Barons, he conferred upon them. The two Houses of Parliament did not think good then to returne their answer so presently after: You may have seene it afore-now yet I think it is somewhat requisite I should insert it here.

To the High and Mighty Lords, the States Generall of the United Provinces of the Netherlands

High and Mighty Lords; Wee the Lords and Commons of England in Parliament assembled; doe with all thankfullnesse acknowledge your Christian and Neighbourly zeale to the Peace of this Nation, hereof we doubt not, and from no other consideration, you were pleased to imploy Borreli of Amsterdam, and Rainswough of Utrict, both made Knights, and afterwards Barons, as your Ambassadors for inviting our King to return to his duty, and for restoring us to a better confidence of his future carriage, notwithstanding the faire intentions (which perhaps being well managed might have produced happie effects) Wee must not conceale from You that your Ministers have grossly abused their trust, to our prejudice, in making themselves rather interested Parties then publike Agents, to shew, that not onely You have been deceived but Wee dispised and affronted by them. We thinke fit to present these inclosed to Your consideration, wherein they were not satisfied to reproach Vs to our faces, and to take upon them to judge the quarrell against Us, except they glory in it by making their boldnesse publike, and increasing it by the addition of their owne Authority: Other particulars concerning the same Persons, We have here authorized these Bearers (unto whom wee desire credence may be given) to relate unto You, and demand justice upon them in Our behalfe upon the whole matter: Wee doe not doubt, but that You who very well know how much more ill there is in Warre then in Oppression, will either afford Your best assistance in suppressing Tyrannie, and preserving our Religion, or at least he indifferent spectators of our labours to deliver our selves; and God be blessed for it Our condition is not yet so low but that We can resent if not returne both Curtesies and Injuries, which we therefore adde, because We know it will be comfortable to our Friends to heare, and because wee desire to give a testimony thereof, if it shall please You to expresse unto Us, wherein We may be usefull to the States, our honoured Neighbours and Predecessors in the like sufferings.

It is a strange thing, when Mediators will be judges, and when men will be rated by their divine private interests, rather than by the publique good; but it is not so strange as true, and it is an ordinary thing, even in Extraordinary persons.

Thursday the 29 of May
We are advertised that the King hath summoned the Garrison of Leicester: and that they answered his Summons with Canon shot. Collonel Vermuden hath a very considerable party betweene Derby, and Leicester: for besides the 2500 horse that went with him from Sir Thomas Fairfax his Army, he had additionall forces out of Derby, Lincolnshire, and other places adjacent thereunto.

Friday the 30 of May
The Vigillant Major Generall Browne arrived hither this Morning. The Malignants did presently raise a false rumour upon his arrivall: of the raising of the siege at Oxford. But they that were afore Oxford yesterday at two a clock in the afternoone assure us, that the siege continueth still: and that Oxford is so streightly block’t up: That it is extreame hard for any one to get out of it, without being taken by som of our parties, or stay’d by our sentinels. Eight Ladies were a comming away in a Coach this weeke. But they were met by some of Major Generall Brownes Troopers, who had them afore him, and after some examination they were turned into the Towne again. The Major Generall told them, that since they had tasted the sweetnesse of Oxford,  it was fit they should tast some of the bitternesse thereof. The Garrison of Wallingford saw Collonel Browne a marching within half a mile of them. But they durst not venture to sallie out upon them.

Saturday the 31 of May
Major Generall Browne is in the Citie. The occasion of his coming is to get men out of this City, to go to keep Abingdon; that they that are in it, shall neither want Cheese, Biskits, nor other Bread. For the care, and providence of Major Generall Brown, hath been so great, that he hath provided for above 4 months time. Many thousands of Cheese are bought every weeke, and lay’d up in the store house there is a pretty bigg roome full of Biskits, and they have above a thousand quarters of Wheate. But there is no greate store of powder’d Beefe: nor of any other salt meat.

Munday the 2 of June
An Ordinance passed both houses for the raysing of 120000l. out of the Excise or new impost for the service of the West according to a former Ordinance of both Houses. Money is rightly called the sinew of Warres. For, as our bodies have no strength, nor cannot move without Sinews: Warres are, likewise at a stand without Money, which can make the whole frame of the greatest Army, to moove presently. There are many Gentlemen desirous to go into the West, and so soone as, according to this Ordinance, Money shall be raysed, they will be ready to enter upon so important and so necessary a service. The Plague (as it seemeth) which is very hot in Bristoll driveth many Officers, and Souldiers out of this City: and maketh them to chuse rather to take the field, then to stay in the Town. Which encreaseth much the Kings forces in those places, and therefore, to prevent their swarming, and lest they should overpower our Army there: it is necessary we should encrease it. We have about 7000 men there already, and the best part of them are of the old, and of the well experienced Souldiers of the Earle of Essex. Their commander Col. Graves hath given many sufficient proofes of his Valour, and of his dexterity in managing Warlike affaires. And now that Collonel Massey is to advance with all expedition to his charge in the West, no doubt, but things will be carried there to our best advantage, and to the content of well-affected persons. If we loose a little Northwards, our losse may be recompenced Westwards.

It was Ordered this day that Major Generall Browne should go down to take care, and to mannage the affaires before Oxford : Which is a place not to be let alone. For it is worth foure Leicesters. If we have it once, all the pettie Garrisons the King hath thereabouts will be ours quickly. And then we shall be the better able to keep in, if not to take some of the rest. The trading into the West is of greater Concernment, then that of the North. But as we seeke to get one, we must endeavour not to loose the other.

Malignants have reported that Yorke was revolted, and that Yorkeshire was up in Armes, they say well and true in the last: but how, and for whom? for the King yes, and for the Parliament also, as they ought to do. You shall be pleased to understand therefore, that all the trained bands in Yorkeshire, are in good Warlike posture to defence their Country against the incursions of their Enemies and to keepe of the Kings Army.

The manner of taking Leicester hath been fully related already. We lost it seemeth 1100 men in it killed, and taken 60 barrels of Powder, 3000 Armes, and other good pillage. Col: Gray and Mr. Ennis were slaine there, and Sir Robert Pye junior, wounded and taken Prisoner. The Kings souldiers have shewed themselves extraordinarily inhumane in killing both Women and Children, and in putting many one to the Sword in coole blood. They did set up 4. Gibets to hang up Mr. Stankey who was Major of the Towne the last yeare, Mr. Deacon, and Mr. Ludlow, and another of the Committees, two of them were executed, and the third cut in pieces, and the fourth is respited for a time as we heare. According to some relations, the Kings forces did kill many after they had given them quarter upon laying down of their Armes. What barbarousnesse can be paraleld with this? Pray, how many men did Collonel Massey put to the Sword, when he tooke Evesham by storme?

The Scots lost 120 Commanders, besides many hundreds of common Souldiers in storming of Newcastle, and yet they put no more but two to the Sword, which were obstinate, and denyed quarter.

The King was as it is said, within 4 miles of Leicester, when it was stormed and taken, and did not enter into it till two houres after it was taken, and could not therefore hinder the mischiefe which souldiers did in it. It is to be wisht that his Majesty had been pleased to give order for the preventing of so barbarous acts, and of the shedding of so many of his good and loyall subjects lives (if they had them) in his service against a forraine Enemy, to make him more glorious and more powerfull. If he is pleased to consider things as they are indeed, he is a great looser, when they of his party put some of the Parliament side to the Sword.

The last newes of this day though no State newes, yet it concerns a Prince, and a very famous one. Prince Griffith hath made an escape out of Newgate; That Palace did not agree with his Princely humour, and although his ambitious thoughts did aspire very high; yet he did not love to be so much exalted, as those are commonly which come to the preferment of being put into Newgate, not for their deserts, but for their demerits.

Tuesday the 3.of June
Prince Rupert is marched into Darbishire with a party of Horse as we heare; and thence he will take a farther March into Lancashire, as it is conceived, but I beleeve he will be stopt, and hindred in his progresse.

Surely the Horses we have to the number of 4000 or 5000 in those places will not lye dormant , but will chase him : And Sir William Brereton hath a good competent strength in Lancashire to withstand him. The state of our affaires in Cheshire is good, for all the raising of the Siege of Chester.

It is thought that Sir Thomas Fairfax will advance with a good considerable Party to goe on upon some designe, and to stop the current Kings proceedings. Except wee have a good and strong Army, and most of it Horse to range after his wild Bucks they will spoyle all the Countrey. They are almost like so many Crabats, which are here to night a pillaging and will be with the spoiles 30 or 40 miles hence the next day.

From Ratisbonne
We heare that Bakos Gabor Lieutenant General to Prince Ragorskie Duke of Transilvania is come with many Troopes as farre as to the River of Wad below the River of Danubius with an intent to joyne with Generall Torstenson, who is making a Bridge upon the said River of Danubius foure leagues of Vienna: he hath caused the Town of Stein to be demolished, and hath made a fort neere it, to stop the passage unto the Imperiall Armie, over that River. The Emperour hath sent 5000 men to joyn with Generall Hazfield, five Regiments in Bohemia to keepe the Frontiers of that Kingdome and to divert some of their Enemies forces, if they can.

From Leipsie
They write unto us that Collonel Ruchenmister one of the Swedish Army hath made a Bridge upon the Elbe neere Schoenbeck, to lodge some of his Troopes on the other side of the water, to streighten the Garison at Magdeburgh; before Collonel Axel Lilie hath intrenched himself already to block it up round about.

The Duke of Saxonie sendeth what forces he can to the Emperour. Collonel Peter Anderson, which is incamped at Oels, hath stop’t the passage to the Imperialist from Breslaw into Poland.

From Calais
The French hath taken Rose in Roussilon and killed about 500 of the Spanish Horse, betwixt Dunkirke and St. Omar. One of those two places will be beseiged suddenly.

From Hamburgh
Collonel Wrangel a Swedish Commander hath taken Husum fort neere Eiderstedd, and block’t up Frederichstad: which Major General Bawrr [sic] (who hath the conduct of all affaires of the Countrey of Holstein) is to relieve. The Garrison of Rensburg holdeth out still against the Swedes: they have sallied out lately, and killed some of the Swedes and spoiled one of their morter peeces.

From Barcelona
The state of the French affairs in Catalonia is thus. The Earle of Harcourt hath about 9000 foot, and 3000 horse, besides the Officers, and the Infanterie of Catalonia which is for the French who have made 40 Barges, besides many other boates to make a Bridge upon the River of Segre: upon which the Spaniards have intrenched themselves to stop the passage. Both the Armies are within foure leagues one from another. One of the Earle of Harcourts Coachmen, was lately taken by the Spanish scouts and carried into Lerida to Dom Andrew Cantelmos Generall of the Spanish Army; who sent him presently back again to his Master with a Trumpter who told the Earle that Dom Andrew expected him on the other side of the River with 25000 foot, and 6000 horse. The Earle of Harcourt answered that Spanish Rodomantado with a French galanterie, he showed the Trumpeter his whole Army, and charged him tell Dom Andrew that, to save him the monies he spent in Spies to discover the strength of the French Army, he had let them him have a full view of it. The Kingdome of Arragon refuseth to take the Oath of Allegiance to Dom Balthasar Eldest sonne to the King of Spaine, who went along with him to the City of Saragosa the chiefe place of Arragon. The Citizens whereof desire to be restored into their former priviledges, and they refuse to goe out of their own Conntry to aide their King. The Earle of Harcourt is got over the River of Segre upon Camarras Bridge.

From Paris
By severall letters which came from thence by the last post, we understand that the Marshall of Turenne (who had received a mighty blow in Franconia, as you have heard:) having rallied many of his forces neere Worms, and in Alsatia; did fall upon John de Wert Generall of the Emperours forces in a place where he was with 3000 of his horse, but somewhat too farre from the main body of his army routed them all, and took John de Wert himselfe Prisoner, who was expected in Paris, when the letters were written. It is to be observed, that when John de Wert was set at liberty in Paris he told Lewis the thirteenth, that he would come to see him once more. His prophesie failed onely in this. That he shall see Lewis the fourteenth in stead of Lewis the thirteenth.

From the Camp before La-Mothe in Lorrain beseiged by the French
La-Mothe is a place situated upon a high and strong Rocke 12 leagues distant from Nancy it comandeth all the Countries round about. The French tooke it once afore July 1634, but Lewis the 13th did restore it unto the Duke of Lorraine, hoping he would prove true to the Crowne of France, as he had sworne it upon the Bible. But it seemes he hath not kept his Oath; which hath caused France to lay the siege before it this second time, they have made their approaches, and brought their trenches, and Galleries so neere the Towne, that the besieged pelt them with stones; for, they can do them but little hurt with their Ordnance, not with their musquets neither. There are now 3 batteries made two of them, have 4 peeces of Ordnance a peece, and the third which is the neerest hath but two.

From Calais
We are assured by letters that came a Tuesday last from thence; that the Duke of Orleans Uncle to the yong King, is now in Picardy with 26000 fighting men. That the Spanish Army under the Duke of Picolomini is to be shortly at Ypres, which place is appointed for the General Rendez vous. That the Spaniards is a fortifying the Castle of Hermont, the Hollanders horse will go to disturbe him within few dayes. That the Admirall of Zealand riding lately neere Calais Coast, heard that two Dunkirke ships were towards Dieppe with some prises, and made presently after them.

From Rome
We understand that the Pope beging to reforme the Cardinals, but in their onely titles of Honour, and in their Armies. He hath set forth a Bull wch prohibiteth them to take any higher titles then of Eminentissimo, and of Reverendissimo: I know not what more sublime title one can take then the first. He will not have them set any Crownes in their Armes, but commandeth them to be contented with Cardinals hats.

Printed according to Order, by T. Forcet

Source: British Library, E.286[23]
Transcription: Ros Jones

Search tags: Aragon (Arragon), Collonel Vermuden (Vermuyden), Croats (Crabats), Derbyshire, Earl of Essex, General Hatzfeldt (Hazfield), Innes (Ennis), La Mothe-en-Bassigny (La-Mothe), Leipzig (Leipsie), Lorraine (Lorrain), Louis XIII (Lewis the thirteenth), Piccolomini (Picolomini), Prince Rákóczi, River Danube (Danubius), Roussillon (Roussilon), St Omer (Omar), Transylvania (Transilvania), Yorkshire, Zeeland (Zealand)